Syria Options: Russian Naval Activity in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea
National Security Situation: A resurgent Russia is operating extensively in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea in support of Syria, undermining U.S. efforts to protect the people of Aleppo, and U.S. efforts against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS).
Date Originally Published: January 5, 2017.
Author and / or Article Point of View: Bob Hein, a career Naval Officer, believes a resurgent Russia may be at a tipping point in its ability to continue operations on a global scale. However, Russia’s current actions continue to affect world order. His views in no way reflect those of the U.S. government, the Department of Defense, or the U.S. Navy. He also likes to play blackjack, smoke cigars, and drink scotch.
Background: In a show of strategic nostalgia, and in an attempt to reassert itself on the global stage, Russia has stationed its fleet, to include the carrier Kuznetsov, in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The Kuznetsov is present under the auspices of supporting a faltering Syrian Regime, while thwarting U.S. efforts against both ISIS and U.S. support to anti-Assad forces. Russia has turned the Eastern Mediterranean Sea into “a dangerous place.”
Significance: If we are indeed in a return to great power competition, then a resurgent Russia operating off the coast of Syria, at best, undermines U.S. influence from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea through the Middle East, to include key maritime choke points such as the Suez Canal and the Strait of Gibraltar. At worst Russia’s activities at sea provide an opportunity for a miscalculation that could lead to war.
Option #1: The U.S. Navy provides a force to serve in the Mediterranean Sea as a credible deterrent to Russian expansionism. Prior to the fall of the Berlin Wall, the U.S. maintained a credible deterrent force in the Mediterranean Sea. In addition to large numbers of ground forces based in Germany, the U.S. Navy provided a near continuous Aircraft Carrier Strike Group (CSG) presence. That presence deterred Soviet aggression through its ability to deny the Soviets their objectives, and if necessary, provide a level of punishment that would make Soviet expansionism futile. This strategy resulted in an undeniable victory for the U.S. in the Cold War.
Risk: The risk is medium for Option #1 as it is primarily resource driven, both in hardware and dollars. The U.S. Navy of the Cold War consisted of almost 600 ships and one major threat. In the decades since, more threats have emerged in addition to a resurgent Russia. These emerging threats include a rising China, a nuclear North Korea, a volatile Iran, and violent extremist organizations that have swept across the Middle East and North Africa. Placing a CSG in the Mediterranean Sea would require either moving ships away from other priority missions such as strikes on ISIS or an aggressive build rate of ships which could not be supported by either current industrial capacity or the current U.S. Navy budget. There is also an increased risk of miscalculation. Russia is not the Soviet Union and memories of the Soviet fall will continue to ferment for the foreseeable future.
Gain: Medium. If Option #1 is successfully undertaken, the results would be a reassurance of our allies globally, an affirmation of U.S. global power and influence, and the ability to influence events in Syria that fully support U.S. interest and intent.
Option #2: Ignore the Russians. Like a high school baseball all-star seeking out prior glory, the Russians are mortgaging their future to bring back the glory days. The deployment of their carrier the Kuznetzov did little more than gain derision as it steamed trailing a thick black cloud across to the Mediterranean Sea. The Kuznetzov ultimately did little more than demonstrate the ailing Russian fleet and the two aircraft crashes did little to demonstrate Russian ability to project power from the sea. Furthermore, Russia is draining its reserve fund to fund government operations to include its military expansionism. Additionally, Russia has been bleeding economically due to Western sanctions and the low-cost of oil. Once Russia’s reserve fund runs out their options are limited. Russia can choose to either operate and stop modernization their military, or modernize their military and stop operating. History has shown that Russia will attempt to keep operating and slow its rate of modernization and this will push maintenance costs up. Russia’s last foray into deploying vessels on the cheap resulted in the loss of a ballistic missile submarine Kursk.
Risk: High. If the U.S. were to ignore the Russians and miscalculate their ability to operate in an austere environment then the U.S. runs the risk of demonstrating an inability to operate on the global stage. U.S. inaction and miscalculation will solidify that Russia has the influence and ability they claim thus bolstering Russian credibility globally. The political risk is high and the risk to the people of Syria is high.
Gain: High. Similar to holding on 17 in blackjack and waiting for the dealer to bust, the U.S. takes minimal risk while Russia busts. The U.S., with minimal effort and minimal cost, watches while Russia overextends itself, wipes out its cash reserves, and struggles to maintain its ability to even minimally influence its neighbors.
 British warship docks in Israel amid rising tensions in Mediterranean Audrey Horowitz-Eric Cortellessa-Nina Lamparski-Elie Leshem-Avi Issacharoff-JTA Ahren-Ralf ISERMANN-Times staff-Cathryn Prince-Rich Tenorio-Rebecca Stoil-Nicholas Riccardi-Steve North-Sue Surkes – http://www.timesofisrael.com/british-warship-docks-in-israel-at-time-of-rising-tensions-in-mediterranean/
 Farmer, B. (2016) Belching smoke through the Channel, Russian aircraft carrier so unreliable it sails with its own breakdown tug. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/10/21/russian-carrier-plagued-by-technical-problems/
 Lockie A. (2016) Russia has just given up on trying to launch strikes from its rickety aircraft carrier – http://www.businessinsider.com/russia-gave-up-airstrikes-kuznetsov-aircraft-carrier-2016-12
 Readhead, H. (2016). Russia is rapidly running out of cash. http://metro.co.uk/2016/09/08/russia-could-run-out-of-money-by-the-end-of-this-year-economists-predict-6115802/