Western militaries are struggling to comprehend how to effectively manage the rapidly changing character of contemporary warfare because the multi-domain model used to explain it is fundamentally flawed. How and why this is the case will be explored below. Finally, an alternative model will be proposed that is both simpler and provides a more holistic understanding of contemporary warfare.
Challenging The Model
The current multi-domain construct with its five extant domains (land, sea, air, space and cyberspace) dominates discussions of contemporary and future conflict in Western militaries.  This is particularly notable in discussions relating to some of the more intractable contemporary dilemmas such as “hybrid warfare,” establishing or countering large A2/AD zones; countering hypersonic missiles (especially when deployed in support of an adversary's A2/AD zone), proliferation of low cost weaponised drones, the rise of the so called “like” war and the rise of autonomous and intelligent systems.