Armed conflict is increasingly occurring in urban areas: a fight amongst populations. The Modern War Institute's John Spencer argues they present the most difficult future combat environment and are becoming more so. That trend was already evident in 2004 when the Australian Army labelled this ‘Complex Warfighting'. As explained in the 2008 Future Land Operating Concept ambiguity and uncertainty have compounded since then as technology, population and social factors drive a shift that the Chief of Army describes as ‘Accelerated Warfare'.
Complexity remains a useful label and is far more than a synonym for ‘complicated'. Complexity describes a problem that resists analysis and singular solutions because its elements are interwoven and dynamic.